2009, Vol. 4 No. 1, Article 37
A note on Ivermectin and Clorsulon treatment of Cattle Infested with Subcutaneous Parasites
K. A. Shah*1
and S. A. Andrabi1
1 Department of Animal
e-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org
Seven crossbred cattle infested with non-specific subcutaneous parasites were given a single subcutaneous injection of a parasiticidal preparation that provided a dose level of 0.2mg ivermectin and 2mg clorsulon per kg liveweight. Additionally, phenylbutazone @ 20 mg /kg liveweight was administered intramuscularly for four days. A complete recovery ensued within 2 weeks of treatment.
Ivermectin, Clorsulon, subcutaneous parasite.
Subcutaneous parasitic infestation in cattle in India and abroad is caused by certain arthropods of the
Hypoderma and Dermatobia species and filaroid nematodes of
Parafilaria, Stephanofilaria and Onchocerca species which are transmitted by hematophagus vectors.
The affected animals do not show any marked clinical signs until larvae appear along the body coat and nodular or soft fluctuating painful swellings develop under skin at neck, brisket or shoulders and dorsal aspect of the body.
Subcutaneous parasitism inflicts great economic losses to cattle owners by causing reduction in milk production (up to 10 to 20%), loss of body condition, depreciation of value of meat and hide or even mortality in certain cases due to migration of larvae to vital organs (Soulsby, 1986)
Present communication deals with the reporting satisfactory treatment of non-specific subcutaneous parasitic infestation in cattle.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Seven crossbred cows, aged between 4 to 7 yrs, exhibited clinical
signs suggestive of subcutaneous parasitic infestation. A single
subcutaneous injection at a dose of 1ml/50 kg live weight was given aseptically by inserting a 16 gauge needle in loose skin in front of shoulder. This provided a dose level of 0.2mg ivermectin and 2mg clorsulon
per kg bodyweight. Two days later, phenylbutazone 20mg/kg bodyweight was administered daily for four days. All animals were kept under close observation for two weeks.
RESULTS and DISCUSSION
Clinically the affected animals were in poor body condition and yielded significantly low. Painful fluctuating or nodular swellings under skin were observed in brisket region or on shoulders and dorsal aspect of body (Fig 1-4) corroborating with the signs reported by Soulsby loc-cit.
After treatment with ivermectin and clorsulon (supported with phenyl butazone), all the seven animals showed a marked clinical improvement during first week and a complete recovery with disappearance of local swellings (Fig 5) was achieved two weeks post treatment. Phenyl butazone was used to counteract effects of toxins liberated if any, by the dead parasites after treatment. These toxins often cause systemic reaction or local inflammatory oedematous swelling (Blood
et al, 1995). Efficacy of ivermectin against sub-cutaneous parasites from
Onchocerca and Hypoderma species was earlier reported by Klei
et al (1980) and Soulsby (1986).
Antiparasitic activity of ivermectin results from an increased release of the neuro-transmitter gama amino butyric acid (GABA). Clorsulon , primarily a flukicide and nematocide inhibits enzyme system of the parasite and is reported to be 100% efficacious against helminths and flukes (Campbell and Benz, 2007) and (Nasreen
et al, 2008). Injectables comprising of 1% w/v ivermectin and 10% w/v clorsulon were reported highly efficacious against subcutaneous and ecto-parasitism due to
Hypoderma, Bovicola, Sarcoptis and Psoroptes species in goat (Marsy
et al, 2001), cattle (OSU bulletin)and dog (Marsy et al, 2001).
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OSU bulletin on parasiticidal
application for non lactatin and beef cattle, (www.ohioline .osu.edu/b473/pdf/b473_3.pdf)
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and Hinchcliff, KW. Veterinary Medicine – A textbook of the
diseases of Cattle, Sheep, Pig, Goats and Horses. 2000, WB
Soulsby EJL (1986) Helminths ,
Arthopods and Protozoa of Domesticated Animals.7th ed. Balliere
Tindall, London p 370-400
Swellings on skin of affected animal