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2009, Vol. 4 No. 2, Article 45

 

Experimental Osteo-fluorosis in Goats of Jammu and Kashmir

Vinay Kant*1, P.K.Verma2, N. K. Pankaj2 and R. Raina3

 

1M.V.Sc. Scholar; 2Junior Scientist; 3Professor and Head;

 

Division of Pharmacology and Toxicology,
Faculty of Veterinary Sciences & Animal Husbandry, SKUAST-J, R. S. Pura, Jammu

 

*Corresponding Author; e-mail address: drvinaykant2001@yahoo.co.in

 


ABSTRACT

Fluorine intoxication is an important global public health concern in humans and animals. In present study, sodium fluoride alone and with aluminium sulphate (ameliorative agent) was administered orally daily for 30 days in healthy goats of group 1 and 2 respectively to access the radiographic changes in the forelimb and efficacy of aluminium sulphate as an ameliorative agent. The radiographic changes that were observed in both the groups after 30 days exposure include an increase in overall density of the bony cortex. No other significant change s in the bone and or the joint of any of the animals were detected.

KEY WORDS

Aluminium sulphate, goats, radiographic changes, sodium fluoride, subacute toxicity.

INTRODUCTION

Fluoride toxicity is one of the serious health problems in many parts of the globe and is an important public health concern in humans and animals. In India, toxicity of fluoride in man and animals is very common and about 20 states including Jammu & Kashmir (J&K) have been identified as significantly affected states in India ( Thakuria, 2007). In Jammu & Kashmir state excess fluorine level in soil and water is present in some belts of district Doda, Kathua and Rajouri. Many people of Ghat area in Doda district are reported to be suffering from dental fluorosis. The water in this area has the level of fluoride is over 1.2 ppm which exceeds the national standards for fluoride in drinking water (1 ppm). The dental fluorosis is spreading to the adjacent rural areas of Doda (Majeed, 2007). In the J&K state, goats are back bone of livestock economy and main source of livelihood of Gujjars and Bakerwals community.
Fluoride toxicity causes dissociation of the normal sequence in osteogenesis resulting in production of abnormal bone (exostosis due to stimulation of alkaline phosphatase), acceleration of remodeling, bone fracture, enlargement of sternum and lower jaw, callus formation on the ribs, increase in diameter of metacarpals, metatarsals and phalanges, and sometimes osteoporosis. The affected animals and humans shows lameness increased immobilization of joints, pain during palpation of affected bones, stiffness which is associated with oesteofluorotic lesions and calcification of tendons and peri-articular structures. Osteophytosis and sclerosis of the vertebral column may cause compression of spinal cord and nerve roots and can produce neurological signs. The compression of nerve root can lead to atrophy of various muscles. studies have been conducted experimentally in different species of animals, but the reports are lacking in local goats of J&K. The changes produced by the fluoride toxicity are irreversible and only preventive measures are possible and successful. The present study was therefore aimed to evaluate the radiographic changes during subacute toxicity of fluoride and the efficacy of the aluminium sulphate as an ameliorative agent in goats.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Eight healthy cross bred goats 1.5 -2 years of age weighing 25-30 kg were procured from local farmers of R.S. Pura, Jammu. They were acclimatized for two weeks in the divisional animal shed under standard conditions before the commencement of experiment. The animals were maintained on ad libitum feed and water. The experimental protocol was approved by institutional animal ethics committee. The animals were divided into two groups of 4 each. Goats of group 1 were used to study the effect of subacute exposure of fluoride on radiographs of forelimb, in which sodium fluoride (NaF, SD Fine- Chem. Ltd.) alone was administered orally at the dose rate of 20 mg/kg body wt. (providing 9 mg/kg b. wt. fluorine) daily for 30 days and goats of group 2 were used to study the efficacy of aluminium sulphate as an ameliorative agent on the effect of subacute intoxication of fluoride on radiographic changes, in which same dose of NaF along with aluminium sulphate [SD Fine- Chem. Ltd.] at the dose rate of 150 mg/kg b.wt. was administered orally daily for 30 days. Aluminium sulphate was administered 30 minutes before the administration of NaF. Both the salts were dissolved separately in 100 ml of distilled water and gavazed to the animals daily between 9.00 to 10.00 a.m. All the animals were weighed weekly and doses of NaF and Al2(SO4)3 were corrected accordingly.
Medio-lateral and anterio-posterior views were taken before administration of salt(s) and after 30 days of administration of salt(s) in both the groups with the factors: KVP = 55 and mAS = 7.5. The exposed films were processed by using standard protocol.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The radiographs of metacarpal of right forearm of two goats of group 1 and 2 are presented in Figure 1 and 2, respectively. The radiographic changes that were observed after 30 days exposure of sodium fluoride include only an increase in overall density of the bony cortex. No other significant changes in the bone and or the joint of any of the animals were detected. These less prominent changes in the bones and the joints may be due to short time fluoride exposure and goats are more resistant to fluoride toxicity among the ruminants. Similar types of changes in the radiographs were also observed in Group 2. So, the use of aluminium sulphate as an ameliorative salt had no beneficial effects on the changes produced in the bones. During the experiments, goats showed decreased movement, symptoms of lameness and muscle weakness. They sat and stayed at one place during grazing.
Fluoride has high affinity for bones and gets deposited in them This in turn causes thickened bones; increased bone density and alleviation of osteoporosis symptoms, Fluoride is also responsible for enlargement of sternum and lower jaw, callus formation on the ribs, increase in diameter of metacarpals, metatarsals and phalanges, and sometimes causes osteoporosis as well.
Jones (1972) reported arthritis of hind limb(s) as the most prominent feature of osteofluorosis that resulted stiff, short strides and compensatory hypertrophy of shoulder muscles. Enlarged hooves and bony exostoses on radius were also observed in some cases. Kyphosis and lameness, especially of fore limbs in all fluorotic animals was recorded by Araya et al. (1990). Deformity of hooves, swelling of fetlock, hock and other joints were also reported in some animals (Singh and Swarup, 1994).
Symptoms of osteofluorosis such as hind limb lameness, reluctance to move, skeletal deformities, bony exostoses and wasting of main mass of hind and shoulder muscles were reported in cows(Singh et al., 1995). According to Choubisa (1999), hind limb lameness, stiffness and bony exostoses were mostly observed in older animalsof more than 7 years age. Patra et al. (2000) reported bony exostoses, rib abnormalities and inability to walk as signs of osteofluorosis in cattle.
During present trial ,subacute exposure of fluoride produced only an increase in overall density of the bony cortex and the aluminium sulphate did not show any beneficial effect on these changes.

REFERENCES

  1. Araya O, Wittwer F, Villa A, Ducom C. Bovine fluorosis following volcanic activity in Southern Andes. Vet Rec 1990;126:641-42.

  2. Choubisa SL. Some observations on endemic fluorosis in domestic animals in Southern Rajasthan (India). Vet Res Commun 1999;23:457-465.

  3. Jones WG. Fluorosis in dairy herd. Vet Rec 1972; 90:503-507.

  4. Majeed S. 5000 in Doda contract flourosis, lose teeth. 29 January 2007. Greater Kashmir, J&K 2007.

  5. Patra RC, Dwivedi SK, Bhardwaj B, Swarup D. Industrial fluorosis in cattle and buffalo around Udaipaur, India. Sci Total Environ 2000; 253:145-150.

  6. Singh JL, Swarup D. Fluorosis in buffaloes. Vet Rec 1994;135:260-261.

  7. Singh JL, Swarup D, Dogra RKS, Singh GR. Fluorosis in dairy cows: Clinicopathological findings. Indian J Anim Sci 1995; 65162-165.

  8. Thakuria N. Fluorosis: Bone crusher in Assam, 29 May 2007. Blitz 2007.


Fig 1: Radiographs of right forelimb, with lateral and anterio-posterior view,
before administration of NaF and after 30 days of administration of NaF in group 1

O Day After 30 days

  

Fig 2: Radiographs of right forelimb, with lateral and anterio-posterior view,
before administration of NaF and after 30 days of administration of NaF in group 2.

0 day After 30 days
xray osteofluorosis xray osteofluorosis

 

 


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